Professional articles and academic papers on performance analysis. Attribution analysis seeks to compare the return from a fund with the return from a benchmark, and to explain the differences by decomposing the excess return into its component parts. Some of our most popular research on attribution analysis considers performance attribution methodology from first principles, providing... a primer on attribution analysis and models. Others white papers and reports focus on particular models, such as the Brinson Model, fixed income return attribution, equity attribution analysis, or the dissecting of hedge fund returns. A key aspect of performance is of course reporting to clients, and here the CFA provides guidance for effective investment reporting with its Principles for Investment Reporting model, known as GIPS (Global Investment Performance Standards) and encapsulated in the GIPS Handbook. A proper attribution of returns illuminates the contribution made by active managers, enabling judgements to be formed of whether excess returns have arisen from skill or luck. For most investment strategies, however, an extended period of time is required before such judgements can be made with any confidence.