Articles and white papers relating to back office and custody issues. This section covers research for investment operations professionals, clearing & settlement staff, fund accounting managers and global custody executives. Particularly popular papers in this section include those which tackle the operational challenges facing investment managers as they manage complexity and change in investment operations. Surveys of fund operations and investment banking operations have also been well received.... A number of papers examine middle office operations: should the middle office be outsourced, or can you transform the asset management middle office to a bottom-line contributor? Other back office research in this section includes white papers on global custody, custodian ratings, clearing and settlement, settlement systems, securities lending and collateral management. A number of articles examine back office issues relating to alternative investments, specifically hedge fund administration, prime brokers and alternative investment fund operations and domiciles. Other reports cover the effect of investment regulation on the back office, for example, IFRS9 (impairment of financial assets and AIFMD).