Research papers and articles on private equity and venture capital. This section contains both private equity research for pension funds (and other asset owners) and white papers for private equity professionals. Much of the research for institutional investors covers fundamental topics: What are the characteristics of private equity investment? How does one invest in private equity? How does... an allocation to private equity impact the risk-return profile of a fund? How does private equity co-investment work? How does one invest in the PE secondary markets? How can smaller investors access private equity? Other PE and VC research is for those in the private equity industry - advice for managing a private equity business, how the private equity industry is changing, how to integrate ESG into private equity, private equity taxation and of course private equity salary surveys. Other reports and white papers on private equity consider the rise of EM private equity, particularly in African and Asian markets. Also discussed is the best path to achieve early stage funding, and the ongoing debate of venture capital versus crowdfunding. Other articles look into leveraged buyouts, illiquidity, and the rise of shareholder activism.